The Stock Exchange and Stocks

Brokers trade stocks and bonds on the stock exchange on behalf of other customers. There may be one or many stock exchanges in many nations. The stock of large multinational firms is handled by the larger stock exchanges, whereas smaller stock exchanges sometimes solely deal in national stock.


A corporation is a business with the authority to issue shares of stock. They are governed by laws that safeguard both them and their stockholders and are registered with the government. A board of directors governs every corporation and makes decisions on its behalf.

Investors often have a restricted amount of responsibility. Investors only lose their initial investment if a company declares bankruptcy.

Bonds and stocks

Bonds and Stocks


When someone purchases stock, they become a shareholder in the business. They purchase a company’s stock. A bond is a commitment to provide money to a business for a specific time. Because they need money and want to grow, businesses offer individuals stocks and bonds. They occasionally wish to construct new factories or create more items.

A business can spend its income in a variety of ways if it is profitable. It can choose to increase its investment in the business and grow. The majority of the time, a dividend, which is a portion of the annual earnings, is paid to the company’s shareholders. This dividend might vary from year to year and is not always the same.

Most businesses provide two different types of stock. Common shareholders have access to the annual meetings of stockholders, when they may propose their views, ask questions about the business, and cast votes for the board of directors.

Preferred stockholders often do not have voting privileges or attendance rights at shareholders’ meetings. But they do receive dividends.


A person who purchases a bond is lending money to the firm, not purchasing ownership in it. After a predetermined amount of time, such as ten or twenty years, it guarantees to return the money to the bondholder. The businesses give the money back with interest. To raise money, governments as well as businesses can issue bonds.

People invest in stocks and bonds in the hopes that a company will make money as it expands. Owners of stocks typically make more money over time than they would by keeping their money in a bank or making other investments.

Purchasing stock is a dangerous endeavor as well. The value of your shares will increase if you purchase shares in a certain firm and it succeeds over time. They might be sold for a lot more money than you paid for them. But occasionally, events take place that causes the value of some stocks to decline. Your shares’ value decreases along with the performance of the firm, which results in a loss for you.

The price of a company’s stock may increase or decrease for a variety of reasons. People could start selling their shares, for instance, if they anticipate a decline in pricing. Prices can decrease if lots of individuals sell lots of stocks. This might cause a crash if it goes on for too long. When stock prices drop so drastically, consumers stop wanting to buy them out of concern that they won’t get their money back.

Stock market

Most individuals visit a broker, who is a member of a business authorized to purchase and exchange bonds and shares, to purchase stock.

Assume a Californian wish to purchase 2000 shares of a corporation. His trip to the New York Stock Exchange is not necessary. He makes a call to a stockbroker, who is typically an employee of a brokerage firm, who informs him of the company’s details and its stock price. The broker receives a purchase instruction from the investor and sends it to his company’s trading desk at the stock exchange, which subsequently puts the order. The order is transmitted to stock tickers around the nation that continuously show the value of equities. You may instantly know the price of each stock since the buying and selling of stocks is focused on one location.

Options are a type of contract commonly used in the trading of stocks. It enables someone to purchase or sell shares at a specific price within a predetermined window of time. If the value increases within that period and stays within the predetermined price, the stock is swiftly resold. Throughout the day, prices fluctuate based on how well or poorly trade is going. Computers typically automatically complete small orders. However, large orders are immediately exchanged at the stock exchange.

World’s biggest stock exchange

stock exchange

Millions of shares worth hundreds of billions of dollars are traded annually by investors. However, not all businesses are listed on the stock exchange. You must have a lot of strength and size. Additionally, you must demonstrate to the stock market that your business is performing well and that you are in a strong financial situation. About 3OO firms are listed on New York’s stock market, the largest in the world.

Most stock exchanges have an index that shows how well or poorly stocks are performing. This figure represents the typical share prices of the big firms. The Dow Jones (New York), FTSE (London), DAX (Frankfurt), Nikkei (Tokyo), and Hang Seng are the most significant indexes (Hongkong).

Bears and Bulls

Bears are cautious creatures who prefer to move slowly. Animals like bulls want to surge ahead. Investors that anticipate a decline in stock prices are known as bears on the stock exchange. A bull anticipates a price increase. Similar to this, a bear market is a time when stocks often decrease in value, while a bull market is when they typically increase.

The stock exchange’s past

Stock market

In 1531, the Belgian city of Antwerp built the first stock market in Europe. A group of traders in London established the first stock exchange in England in 1773. Before then, consumers often used coffee shops since they could find brokers there to purchase and sell stocks.

On Wall Street in New York City, brokers would gather under an ancient tree. In 1792, they set up the New York Stock Exchange.

For long years, stock transactions were restricted to the wealthy. More and more individual investors did not begin to place their money in equities until after World War I. Value significantly increased, and investors profited greatly as a result.

The 1929 stock market collapse

In October 1929, the United States had its worst collapse. Investors sold so many stocks over many days that the market as a whole crashed. This had an impact on the economy not just in America but also in Europe. Banks had to close, industries couldn’t sell their goods, farmers couldn’t sell their harvests, and employees made very little money. The Great Depression was eventually named after this period, which lasted for over 10 years.

The largest stock markets worldwide


Market value in
trillion dollars

New York Stock
NASDAQ (New York)4.5
world’s biggest stock market

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